Beginning -7th Century A.D.
Slow fusion of Armenians and Caucasian Albanians leads to the creation of Armenian principality of Artsakh, which includes both today's Mountainous Karabagh and the plains of Karabagh.
Arabs complete the conquest of Transcaucasia, including Artsakh. Beginning of conversion of a minority of the plains population to Islam.
Seljuk Turks, having emerged from central Asia and conquered Iran, conquer Artsakh and Armenia, extend Islamization and begin Turkification.
Invasion by Genghiz Khan's troops. Later, Turkic invasions by Tamurlane's armies increase the "Tatar" element (a variant of central Asian Turks), ancestors of Azeri or Azerbaijani Turks. Armenians increasingly restricted to safe pockets above all mountains.
Early 16th Century
Ottoman Turks conquer region. Armenians take tentative, ineffective steps towards liberation.
Shah of Persia and Ottoman Empire agree to cede Karabagh to the Khanate of Ganja, a tributory of Persia.
Israel Ori, born in Karabagh, labors for Western, ultimately Russian intervention to free Armenia of alien rule. He informs Peter the Great of conditions in Armenia. Gets paper promises only.
Armenians of the whole of historic Karabagh and the neighboring district of Sunik rise against the Khans and the Ottoman Empire under the leadership of David Bey hoping for assistance from Peter the Great, Tzar of Russia. They receive no help.
Prince Tsitsianov of Tzarist Russia secures Karabagh for the Russian Empire before being assassinated on his way to capture Baku. Karabagh is annexed to the Russian empire.
Russia signs Treaty of Gulistan with Persia, keeps Karabagh and most territories currently part of present-day Azerbaijani S.S.R.
Instigated by local overlords, racial violence breaks out between Tartars or "Azeris" and Armenians throughout Transcaucasia. Tzarist officials, hoping to curb Armenian activism, do not intervene. Armenians put up sustained resistance but are massacred in areas where Tartars form a majority.
Karabagh is occupied by Russian troops who remain until fall of Tzarist regime.
January Tzarist census shows greater Karabagh population to be 317,000 Armenians (72%) and 120,000 Tartars.
Russian Revolution end of tzarist regime.
Departure of troops leave Karabagh in state of disarray.
Inter-party Bureau organized, consisting of Armenians and Tartars Regional Central Executive appointed to run administration of united Karabagh-Zangezur region. Harmony and cooperation exist.
Trancaucasian Confederation (with Armenian, Azeri, and Georgian states) proclaims itself an independent, multi-ethnic republic.
Ottoman Turkish victories in Baku. Armenians of Shushi submit to invading Ottoman armies, however rest of Karabagh resists.
Transcaucasian Confederation dissolves. Complete evacuation of Russian armies leaves a void in disputed areas.
In the fact of Ottoman Turkish penetration into Transcaucasia, Bolsheviks and Dashnaktsakans join forces and set up the Baku Commune to resist invasion.
Republic of Azerbaijan declared on May 27.
Republic of Armenia declared on May 28.
Treaty of Batum signed between Ottoman Turkey and Armenia. Armenia forced to cede large territories to neighboring Turkey, Georgia, and Azerbaijan. Nakhichevan and Karabagh are given status of autonomous districts under the protectorate of Azerbaijan.
British forces enter Transcaucasia.
Fall of Baku Commune.
First Assembly of Karabagh Armenians formed. Elects a People's Government of Karabagh. Rejects demands that Turkish troops be permitted to enter Shushi.
To avoid further Turkish massacres, Second and Third Pan-Karabagh Assemblies decide to keep status-quo under Azerbaijani rule.
Turks and Azerbaijarlis carry out systematic massacre of Armenians. 15,000-20,000 die.
Karabagh Armenians submit to Turks; 5,000 Turkish soldiers enter Shushi.
Turkish massacres intensify in Karabagh. Shushi resists the Turco-Tartar attackers, calls for help from General Andranik and his Armenian volunteer units.
General Andranik stopped by British High Commander of Caucasus, General Thompson. Thompson promises problem will be mediated by the Paris Peace Conference, declares military action wouId be unnecessary destruction. Andranik complies.
British military delegation arrives in Shushi to determine and oversee status of Karabagh.
Paris Peace Conference convenes; Armenia submits claims to historic lands including Karabagh.
Azerbaijan and Gen. Thompson appoint Dr. Khosrov Beg Sultanov, who was already suspected by Armenians as an instigator of massacres as Governor-General of Karabagh and Zangezur Appointment draws violent protests from Armenians in Karabagh.
Republic of Armenia protests; declares Karabagh and Zangezur to be inseparable parts of Armenia. Also protests appointment of Sultanov.
Fourth Pan-Karabagh Assembly declares Karabagh to be inseparable from Armenia, does not recognize Azeri rule. Elects a National Council to carry out decision.
Azerbaijan army and British troops dispatched to Karabagh to erforce Areri rule. Effort repulsed by Armenians.
British General Shuttleworth replaces Thompson as High Commander of the Caucasus, re-announces decision to allow Azeri rule over Karabagh; reiterates Thompson's plan of maintaining status quo until the Paris Peace Conference decides the final boundaries.
Republic of Armenia government once again protests, sends emissary to negotiate. Emissary is banished by British.
Fifth Pan-Karabagh Assembly meets, rejects Shuttleworth's plan. Its Congress accuses Azerbaijan of being an accomplice to Turkish goals of Pan-Turanism or Pan-Turkism, which aspired to unite all lands inhabited by ethnic Turks in Anatolia, old Tzarist Transcaucasia, Iran and Central Asia.
British mission secretly advises Sultanov to enter Shushi with military force.
With British knowledge, more intensive attacks on Armenian villages in Karabagh. Sultanov ignores all protests, is suspected by Armenians of encauraging attacks
Unable to enforce law and order, British withdraw forces from Karabagh.
Armenian Catholicos in Etchmiadzin sends British a formal protest.
Massive demonstrations in Yerevan and Tbilisi. Hundreds of thousands participate, representing all patriotic, political and cultural organizations demanding that authors of the massacres be arrested and punished.
Sixth Pan-Karabagh Assembly agrees to negotiate with Azeri government in Baku.
Armenians compromise in negotiations but leave treaty unsigned.
British War Office announces withdrawal from entire region of Caucasus.
Sultanov presents Seventh Pan-Karabagh Assembly ultimatum to accept Baku agreement. Because agreement had been left open Sultanov changes terms more in favor of Azeri govermnent. Congress bows to inevitable, accepts Sultanov's terms. Representatives create temporary quasi-autonomous district of Karabagh under rule of Azerbaijan pending final determination of Paris Peace Conference.
Paris Peace Conference is still in progress. Armenian representatives stress that the region of Karabagh is Armenian in every detail.
Allied High Commissioner Haskell arrives in Yerevan.
Ninth world Congress of the Dashnaktsutiun (ARF) passes special resolution claiming Karabagh and Zangezur as integral parts of Armenian state.
Violence fares up in Karabagh once again.
Violence in Karabagh intensifies.
The Republic of Azerbaijan concludes treaty with Turkey at expense of Armenia.
Prime Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan hold private discussion with U.S. Army Colonel Rhea concerning conflicts between the two republics. Discussions lead to agreement signed in Tbilisi reflecting desire to cease hoslilities.
Conference of Armenian and Azeri representatives in Baku produces no agreement.
Memorandum of Eighth Assembly of Pan-Karabagh Congress to the Allied Powers.
Red Army of the Soviet State rapidly conquers Azerbaijan, enters Baku as a first step in the reconquest of the Tzarist empire. Azerbaijan becomes a Soviet republic.
Republic of Armenia receives ultimatum from Soviet Azerbaijan and Soviet Russia to clear Armenian troops from pockets in Karabagh and Zangezur within three days.
Representatives of Armenian National Council in Karabagh leave for Moscow to demand annexation of Karabagh to Armenia.
Soviets make first move to accommodate Turco-Soviet plan to carve up Armenia.
Treaty of Sevres in Paris makes provisions for final settlement of Armeno-Azeri boundary lines.
Khalil Pasha visits Yerevan to discuss Karabagh; outlines Soviet-Turkish plan to unite lands free of Armenian jurisdiction.
The government of the Armenian Republic, facing advancing Soviet and Turkish forces, transfers power to Bolsheviks, Armenia becomes a Soviet republic on December 2.
Telegram sent by Soviet Azerbaijani government to Snviet Armenian government cedes territories of Karabagh, Zangezur and Nakhichevan to new fraternal Soviet republic. Border disputes declared resolved.
Treaty of Moscow reverses earlier announcements, formalizes cession of Nakhichevan to Azerbaijan, thus helping to improve Soviet relations with Turkey.
Avis Nurichanian, the People's Military Commissar of Sonet Armenia, declares that Karabagh is an inseparable part of Armenia.
Soviet delegation in negotiations with local government of Karabagh agrees with Nurichanian, and promises Karabagh will be included in Armenian boundaries.
Once again based on agreements between the Soviet republics of Armenia and Azerbaijan, Soviet Armenia demands acquisifion of Karabagh.
Treaty of Kars signed between Turkey and the three Transcaucasian Soviet Republics. Policy set by Soviet government finalizing boundaries in the Caucasus.
Karabagh proclaimed an autonomous region by decree or the Azerbaijan Central Committee, initiated by Moscow.
Two rounds of leaflets distributed in Karabagh by the "Union of Karabagh for Armenia~. Numerous arrests follow.
Marked Pan-Turanic movements in Azerbaijan. Armenians of Karabagh express desire to join Armenia.
Aghasi Khanjian, Secretary of Communist Party of Armenia, killed after submitting Armenian grievances to Stalin. Grievances include requests to return Karabagh and Nakhichevan to Armenia.
False rumor spreads through the Armenian Diaspora that Karabagh and Nakhichevan will be reunited with Armenia on the occasion of Armenia's 40th anniversary of sovietization.
Soviet government response to rumors states tbat central authorities have no right to reintegrate Nakhichevan and Karabagh in Soviet Armenian republic, but Azerbaijan could cede on its own.
Petition to Khrushchev signed by 2,500 representatives of 200,000 Armenians of all of Karabagh complaining of cultural oppression, economic sabotage, and enforced population shifts.
Khrushchev refuses to visit Armenia to discuss the Karabagh case.
Eighteen Armenians killed in Karabagh by Turks. Intellectuals at University of Yerevan protest; later arested.
National Unity Party is formed in Yerevan. While its main goal---the independence of Soviet Armenia, changes over time, the unification of Karabagh and Nakhichevan remains central concern.
Soviet Armenia once again officially appeals to Moscow for Karabagh to be annexed to Soviet Armenia. Moscow says issue must be resolved between the two republics.
Appeal by Armenian residents of Karabagh to the governrnent of Armenia describing intolerable conditions.
Anton Y. Kochinian Communist Party leader of Soviet Armenia, removed from post ostensibly for inability to halt nationalist agitation.
National Unity Party calls for general elections. Ukrainians, Russians, Jews, Lithuanians participate with NUP in hunger strikes.
Armenians of Karabagh rebuked; some imprisoned on charges of nationalist agitation, others removed from office and exiled.
Sero Khanzatian, leading member of the Armenian Communist Party and the Soviet Writers Union, writes strong letter to Brezhnev arguing for the annexation of Karabagh to Armenia.
Protest demonstrations at public events and pleas from Karabagh Armenians charge Azeris with cultural oppression and economic discrimination.
Mountainous Karabagh's new constitution adopted. Local officials' authority reduced to mere ratification and execution of Azerbaijan governnnnent decisions.
350 Soviet Armenian intellectuals urge Gorbachev to close nuclear plant due to radiation.
Armenian Communist Party Central Committee Plenum singles out officials for criticism. Gorbachev publicly chastises Armenian party leaders for corruption.
Petition for annexation or Karabagh to Armenia signed by 100,000. Other sources place number between 75,000 and 400,000.
Violence directed by Azerbaijani officials against Armenians in Karabagh.
While visiting Boston, Sergei Mikoyan says glasnost creates favorable conditions for discussion of Karabagh question.
Two demonstrations in Yerevan demanding closure of nuclear power plant and defense of Armenian national rights.
Haidar Aliev, Azerbaijani official, is removed from Politburo and loses other federal functions.
Clashes between Armenian and Tartar viIlagers in Chardaklu, Mountainous Karabagh.
Turkish newspaper Hurriet reports Armenians provoked over Karabagh.
Soviet central government endorses calls for removal of First Secretary of Armenian Communist Party.
Petition with 100,000 Karabagh Armenians' signatures sent to Moscow asking for referendum to be held in Karabagh on the status of the region. Gorbachev appoints a special commission. Commission receives 13 delegates from Karabagh and 4 from Moscow.
Zori Balayan, journalist from Soviet Armenia, declares at a Washington D.C. press conference that Glasnost will benefit Armenia.
Demonstrations held in Stepanakert, capital of Karabagh.
Gorbachev proposes to hold a special Central Committee meeting to discuss Soviet policy toward nationalities within the Soviet Union. Calls for free development of national cultures.
Protest rally held at Yerevan Opera House, in front of Council of Minsters' Building. No intervention by police.
Soviet of People's Deputies of Karabagh holds special session in Stepanakert; votes to intercede with Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. for the transfer of Mountainons Karabagh from Azerbaijan to Armenia.
Mr. Razumovsky, representative of U.S.S.R Central Party Central Committee in Stepanakert, states that any attempt to break Karabagh away from Azerbaijan is unnacceptabIe.
Thousands of Azerbaijanis march toward Stepanakert, burning buildings on their way.
During an entire week, close to a million demonstrators take part in peaceful demonstrations in Yerevan to protest Politburo's decision not to return Karabagh to Armenia. No incidents reported.
Tass reports that Henrig ["Genrikh"] Pogosyan is named by the regional party committee to replace Boris Kevorkov as party head of Karabagh.
Demonstrations in Paris in support of demonstrations in Yerevan.
Alexander Katonsev, Assistant Attorney General of U.S.S.R., denies rumors of massacres of Armenians by Azeris.
Authorities in Moscow move to limit flow of information from Azerbaijan and Armenia.
Kremlin formally installs Genrikh Pogosyan as Communist Party Chief in Karabagh.
Red army troops arrive in Yerevan.
Four Armenian deaths reported in Karabagh.
A. Mutalibov, Vice-Premier of Azerbaijan reports to Tass that relations between Armenians and Azeris are tense.
Gorbachev calls for calm, reaffirrns friendship between two peoples.
Writers Zori Balayan and Sylva Kaputikian meet with Gorbachev to discuss the case of Karabagh. Gorbachev promises to review the problem during the next 30 days and at next meeting of Central Committee.
Armenians demonstrate in San Francisco, Hollywood, Montreal, Toronto, and New York showing support of Armenian Diaspora in US. and Canada; telegrams of support sent to Gorbachev.
Rioting in Sumgait, Azerbaijan; attacks on Armenian individuals, homes, and businesses. Fighting between Armenians and Azeris in Mountainous Karabagh, Tass reports 31 dead.
Gorbachev summons party leaders of Soviet Armenia and Azerbaijan to Moscow, orders "profound and all-round" study of grievances in Karabagh.
As of this date, Western sources estimate 300 Armenians dead in Azerbaijan as a result of what Azeris call "punitive expeditions"; some Armenian sources accept a much higher number of casualties.
During a state visit to Yugoslavia, Secretary Gorbachev blames predecessors for situation and asserts he will consider grievances of Armenians.
© 1988- Zoryan Institute & Gerard Libaridian.
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